These are somewhat simplified explanations of the terms we commonly use. To confirm findings each area is often assessed in a few different ways. Findings are compared in the different areas to make sure the response adds up in the overall context. High measurements are just as significant as low measurements when interpreting sensory processing. Ideally, visual processing skills need to be at an automatic level (and not be compensated).

Accommodation
the ability to change focus from distance to near
the ability to keep focus at near

Convergence
the ability to turn the eyes smoothly and equally without fatigue

Eye movements
(pursuits) – eyes smoothly following a moving object (no jumps)

Eye movements
(saccadic) – eyes jumping accurately between two points (eg from one target to another or from one word to the next while reading)

Ocular alignment – do the eyes look cosmetically straight
ocular alignment (sensory) – do the eyes point together accurately in 3D space
does the brain perceives objects to be closer or further away than what they are

Pattern glare
excessive glare and print distortions resulting from the high contrast shift between black print and the white page. Also referred to as ‘Visual Stress’ by Arnold Wilkins or ‘Meares Irlen Syndrome’ by Helen Irlen.

Peripheral awareness
the ability to fixate or track an object and simultaneously keep awareness of your side (or peripheral) vision

Sensory processing
how the brain interprets information from the senses. Eg auditory processing, visual, proprioceptive, tactile, social etc

Stereopsis
3D vision – the ability to see depth and make fine visual discriminations

Vergence
flexibility of turning eyes in and out and simultaneously keeping single vision

Where there are visual processing issues, different patterns of findings are found. It is tempting to say that vision is not related to information acquisition and processing. For example, there is no one pattern for learning difficulties or sensory processing problems, however some findings are often found to be reduced.

Most of the time the visual findings are not related to learning but sometimes the effect can be significant. It is desirable to have flexibility and accuracy between the vergence findings and accommodative findings as it shows this part of sensory processing is working at a higher level.